The anthropogenic warming trend observed during the 20th century in Europe is characterized by fluctuations, which are partly explained by internal climate variability. The physical mechanisms between the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV, whose internal component contributes to shape atmospheric variability), and the European climate are investigated in this thesis. A comprehensive study of climate models shows a great diversity in the simulation of the teleconnection between the AMV and European summer temperature. The underestimation of its intensity relative to the observations contributes to explain the uncertainties within the decadal climate predictions. Numerical experiments used to assess the mechanisms of influence of the AMV on the European climate indicate that the AMV is likely to significantly modulate temperature, precipitation and the occurrence of extreme events in winter and summer.